President Trump and Chinese Vice Premier Liu He signed a “Phase One” trade deal in the White House’s East Room Wednesday morning, after the president rambled on stage about members of Congress and business leaders who either were or weren’t in the room. The president announced tariffs on Chinese goods will remain until a “Phase Two” agreement, which could be far away, amid a nearly two-year-long trade war that has hurt U.S. farmers and created a drag on global economic growth.
“We’re leaving tariffs on which, people were shocked, but it’s great,” the president said. “But I will agree to take those tariffs off if we are able to do Phase Two. In other words, we’re negotiating with the tariffs.”
It was only after the president name-checked what seemed to be roughly half the audience, decried the impeachment “hoax,” joked about fired former FBI Director James Comey, and floated the possibility of fireworks over Mount Rushmore that he reached the substance of the long-awaited agreement. The teleprompter in the East Room remained on the same line for long moments, as the Chinese delegation looked on and occasionally clapped politely.
“China is helping us with North Korea,” the president eventually continued. “China is helping us with a lot of the things that they could be helping us with. You don’t see it in the deal. But they have been very very helpful with respect to Kim Jong Un, who has great respect for President Xi. And it’s all a very very beautiful game of chess or game of poker or I can’t use the word checkers because it’s far greater than any checker game that I’ve ever seen. But it’s a very beautiful mosaic.”
The agreement, according to the White House, addresses intellectual property protection and enforcement, ending forced technology transfer, the expansion of American agricultural purchases, ending currency manipulation and rebalancing the U.S.-China trade relationship.
The deal extensively discusses intellectual property protections, a key area U.S. negotiators long insisted must be a part of any agreement.
“The United States recognizes the importance of intellectual property protection,” the agreement says. “China recognizes the importance of establishing and implementing a comprehensive legal system of intellectual property protection and enforcement as it transforms from a major intellectual property consumer to a major intellectual property producer. China believes that enhancing intellectual property protection and enforcement is in the interest of building an innovative country, growing innovation-driven enterprises, and promoting high quality economic growth.”
“The parties shall ensure fair, adequate, and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Each party shall ensure fair and equitable market access to persons of the other party that rely upon intellectual property protection,” the agreement continues.
The agreement also details U.S.-China cooperation on agricultural products, going into detail on dairy products, infant formula, beef and other meat. The agreement mentions soybeans, although it doesn’t elaborate much.
The levies that would have hit American consumers hard, the price hikes on goods including mobile phones and computer monitors, have been put off for now under the deal.
As part of the agreement, the Chinese will also be buying up to $200 billion in U.S. goods, including agricultural products like soybeans and pork, offering some relief to U.S. farmers. Before the signing ceremony, National Economic Council director Larry Kudlow offered more detail on China’s purchase targets for each of the following sectors:
Agriculture: $40 to $50 billion
Manufacturing: $75 billion
Energy: $50 billion
Financial services: $40 billion
“Between the two great nations, nothing like this has ever happened before,” Kudlow told CNBC Wednesday. “This is such an important deal.”
The president’s economic adviser also told reporters that there will be an “enforcement mechanism” if China does not meet the targets.
Kudlow also said that China will make changes to its criminal and civil procedures to enforce issues of intellectual property theft and forced technology transfer, which have been a key point of contention for the U.S.
Any second phase of the deal depends on success of Phase One, Kudlow said. In the meantime, the U.S. will be keeping significant tariffs in place as a check on progress.
Former Vice President Joe Biden criticized the deal shortly before the president was set to sign it.
“China is the big winner of Trump’s ‘phase-one’ trade deal with Beijing,” Biden said in a statement. “True to form, Trump is getting precious little in return for the significant pain and uncertainty he has imposed on our economy, farmers, and workers. The deal won’t actually resolve the real issues at the heart of the dispute, including industrial subsidies, support for state-owned enterprises, cybertheft, and other predatory practices in trade and technology.”
Ben Tracy and Rachel Layne contributed to this report.