Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko is Europe’s longest-serving ruler and the 65-year-old former Soviet farm boss now wants a sixth term as president.
But in the run-up to the 9 August presidential election he has faced the biggest opposition protests for a decade.
There have been hundreds of arrests in a wave of demonstrations since May.
He has been in power since 1994, with an authoritarian style reminiscent of the Soviet era, controlling the main media channels, harassing and jailing political opponents and marginalising independent voices.
The powerful secret police – still called the KGB – closely monitors dissidents.
On 30 July tens of thousands rallied in the capital Minsk in support of political novice Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, now his main rival.
She stepped in to challenge Mr Lukashenko after her husband Sergei Tikhanovsky, a popular blogger, was barred from running and sent to jail.
Two other leading contenders were also barred from running against Mr Lukashenko – Valery Tsepkalo and Viktor Babaryko.
None of the previous presidential elections held during Mr Lukashenko’s long reign were judged free and fair by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), a top election monitoring body.
Scars of war
For years Mr Lukashenko has sought to convince the nation of 9.5 million that he is the best guarantor of stability, a tough nationalist protecting them from foreign meddling.
That message still appeals to many older Belarusians. The country was devastated in World War Two – victim of a Nazi scorched-earth policy – and lost nearly one-third of its population. So suspicion of foreigners and pride in the security forces play well among many voters.
Back in 2005 the administration of then US President George W Bush called Belarus “the last remaining true dictatorship in the heart of Europe”.
Mr Lukashenko once warned that anyone joining an opposition protest would be treated as a “terrorist”, adding: “We will wring their necks, as one might a duck”.
In recent years, however, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orban have also drawn strong Western criticism for harassing opponents and extending state power.
Fearless of Covid-19
Coronavirus has added an extra dimension to the political ferment in Belarus.
Opponents consider Mr Lukashenko’s bravado about the virus to be reckless and a sign that he is out of touch.
In late May he said Belarus was right not to lock down. “You see that in the affluent West, unemployment is out of control. People are banging on pots. People want to eat. Thank God, we avoided this. We didn’t shut down.”
In March, as countries across Europe were imposing lockdowns, he said: “I am convinced that we may suffer more from panic than from the virus”. He suggested combating the virus with hard work, the sauna and vodka.
When the rest of Europe cancelled football matches the continuing Belarus fixtures – still drawing big crowds to stadiums – suddenly attracted international interest.
In this election Mr Lukashenko’s familiar warnings of foreign interference have acquired a new, sharper edge, as Russia is being cast as the villain.
Tensions with Russia
Mr Lukashenko’s security chiefs have accused unnamed Russian forces of trying to help his opponents and foment unrest.
Russia remains Belarus’s chief ally – they have held joint military exercises and the struggling Belarus economy relies on trade with its powerful neighbour.
But in recent years relations have cooled since Moscow moved to end subsidised oil and gas supplies.
Last week the Belarus authorities arrested 33 Russians near Minsk – all but one at a sanatorium – and said they belonged to Wagner, a shadowy Russian mercenary group active in Ukraine, Africa and the Middle East.
Russia denied the Belarusian claim that the detained Russians were plotting acts of terrorism, insisting that they were actually in transit, waiting for a flight to Istanbul.
A former Soviet state farm director, Mr Lukashenko was first elected president in 1994, after leading an anti-corruption drive in parliament.
In the August 1991 botched coup attempt against then Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Mr Lukashenko supported the communist hardliners.
Like Vladimir Putin, Mr Lukashenko remains nostalgic for the Soviet Union. And both are keen ice hockey players.
A referendum in 2004 lifted the two-term limit on presidents, making it possible for Mr Lukashenko to lead Belarus indefinitely.
His origins were humble – raised by a single mother in a poor village in eastern Belarus.
He is married to Galina Lukashenko, with whom he has two adult sons, Viktor and Dmitry. He told an interviewer in 2015 that he had no intention of divorcing Galina, although they have not lived together for decades.
He has a third son, Nikolai, born in 2004, whose mother Irina Abelskaya was Mr Lukashenko’s personal doctor.
“An authoritarian style of rule is characteristic of me, and I have always admitted it,” he said in August 2003. “You need to control the country, and the main thing is not to ruin people’s lives.”