The report by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, released Friday, cited bin Salman’s control of decision-making in Saudi Arabia as well as the involvement of a key advisor and members of the prince’s protective detail in the operation that killed Khashoggi, a critic of the royal family.
Also Friday, Secretary of State Anthony Blinken imposed visa restrictions on 76 Saudi individuals whom he said are “believed to have been engaged in threatening dissidents overseas, including but not limited to the Khashoggi killing.”
Blinken said the restrictions are part of the new “Khashoggi Ban” policy that will bar visas for people who while acting on behalf of a foreign government are believed to have engaged in “serious, extraterritorial counter-dissident activities.”
“Jamal Khashoggi paid with his life to express his beliefs,” Blinken said.
“President Biden said in a statement released last October on the second anniversary of the murder that Mr. Khashoggi’s death would not be in vain, and that we owe it to his memory to fight for a more just and free world.
The ODNI report noted that, “Since 2017, the Crown Prince has had absolute control of the Kingdom’s security and intelligence organizations, making it highly unlikely that Saudi officials would have carried out an operation of this nature without the Crown Prince’s authorization,” the report said.
The CIA-led assessment, which until now had been classified, comes as President Joe Biden aims to reshape the U.S. relationship with Saudi Arabia after years in which the Trump administration ignored the kingdom’s human rights abuses despite condemnation in Congress and at the United Nations.
Khashoggi, a 59-year-old U.S. resident and Washington Post contributor, entered a Saudi consulate in Istanbul, Turkey on Oct. 2, 2018 and never left.
He was killed by a group of assassins, who then dismembered his body. His remains were never recovered.
“The Crown Prince viewed Khashoggi as a threat to the Kingdom and broadly supported using violent measures if necessary to silence him,” the intelligence report said.
“Although Saudi officials had pre-planned an unspecified operation against Khashoggi we do not know how far in advance Saudi officials decided to harm him.”
In a diplomatic rebuke to the crown prince, the White House made clear this week that Biden does not view 35-year-old bin Salman as his counterpart and will instead conduct relations through his aging father, King Salman. Bin Salman has been the public face of the kingdom since becoming crown prince in 2017.
Shannon Stapleton | Reuters
On Thursday, Biden in his first call with the 85-year-old king “affirmed the importance the United States places on universal human rights and the rule of law,” according to a readout from the White House.
Biden also told Salman that he would “work to make the bilateral relationship as strong and transparent as possible,” the White House said. Khashoggi’s name was not mentioned in the readout.
Rep. Adam Schiff, the California Democrat who is chairman of the House intel committee, on Friday called for the White House to impose “serious repercussions against all the responsible parties it has identified” for Khashoggi’s killing and to reassess the U.S. relationship with Saudi Arabia in the wake of the intelligence report.
“We must ensure that if foreign governments target journalists simply for doing their jobs, they are not immune to serious repercussions and sanctions, because restoring confidence in American leadership requires we act in accordance with the values that have long set America apart,” the California Democrat said.
“The Administration should take further steps to diminish the United States’ reliance on Riyadh and reinforce that our partnership with the Kingdom is a not a blank check,” Schiff added.
Saudi authorities had at first denied any knowledge of Khashoggi’s death, and later claimed the journalist got into a fight inside the consulate and died in the clash. Saudi authorities eventually admitted Khashoggi was killed in a “rogue operation,” while denying that bin Salman was implicated.
A United Nations investigator concluded in a June 2019 report that Khashoggi was “the victim of a deliberate, premeditated execution, an extrajudicial killing for which the state of Saudi Arabia is responsible under international human rights law.”
Trump sought to cast doubt publicly about the crown prince’s involvement in Khashoggi’s death, even after multiple outlets reported that the CIA concluded bin Salman himself ordered the journalist’s killing. Trump said the CIA had “nothing definitive” while asserting that the oil-rich kingdom would remain a “steadfast partner” to the U.S.
“It could very well be that the Crown Prince had knowledge of this tragic event – maybe he did and maybe he didn’t!” Trump said less than two months after Khashoggi’s death. Trump’s conciliatory stance contrasted sharply with outrage from members of Congress and the media over the killing of Khashoggi.
The Trump administration conducted relations through the crown prince, who maintained close personal ties with members of the Trump family, particularly former President Donald Trump’s son-in-law Jared Kushner.
Trump made Saudi Arabia his first stop in the Middle East when he made his debut visit to the region in 2017. The kingdom rolled out the red carpet for the former reality star.
The Trump administration leveraged its ties with Gulf monarchies to normalize relations between Israel, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain.
The former president also vetoed an effort by Congress to block billions of dollars in arms sales to Saudi Arabia, as well as the United Arab Emirates, and an attempt to end U.S. involvement in the war in Yemen.
Biden’s review of relations with Saudi Arabia is part of a broader U.S. foreign policy shift in the Middle East.
The president has ended U.S. support for Saudi Arabia’s war in Yemen while seeking to return to the negotiating table with Iran, Riyadh’s enemy, over its nuclear program.
The U.S. president called Israel Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu last week, his first conversation with a Middle East leader since taking office. The Saudis and Israelis are de facto allies, though they have no formal diplomatic ties, in their efforts to counter Iranian influence in the region.
Biden on Thursday “discussed regional security” in his call with King Salman, noting his administration’s efforts to end the war in Yemen “and the U.S. commitment to help Saudi Arabia defend its territory as it faces attacks from Iranian-aligned groups,” the White House readout said.
Biden and Salman also “affirmed the historic nature of the relationship and agreed to work together on mutual issues of concern and interest,” according to the White House.